Long Term Travellers
This group includes embassy staff, voluntary workers, missionaries, etc. intending to stay several years in a country. Some people intend to emigrate permanently whilst others may only intend to visit relatives for an extended period. Sometimes backpackers fall into this category e.g. those who take a year out to backpack "round the world".
Preparation should not be rushed. Vaccinations, prevention of malaria (if appropriate), making enquiries about likely food and water hygiene problems and other disease risks are all-important. A brief visit to the proposed destination in advance can help reduce fear of the unknown.
If you are travelling with children, plan to become pregnant or have any existing health problems you should plan well in advance in consultation with your doctor. A dental and eye check-up prior to departure is wise.
Backpackers may find themselves alternately in major cities with access to medical facilities and then in remote areas far away from medical help. They should therefore seriously consider taking a medical kit for the times when they will be far from help.
First aid equipment may be important and consider what you might do in an emergency, particularly those going to areas remote from or with only basic medical facilities.
Culture shock can be very real. If you anticipate problems of this kind seek counselling before your plans are finalized. Phone calls and emergency visits home to see relatives are often easier to arrange than you might imagine.